Burnin' the fat in deep water by Mary E. Sanders, PhD, FACSM
Among water’s greatest benefits for exercisers is that its natural resistance can stimulate both cardiorespiratory and muscular endurance conditioning. Training studies conducted in shallow water indicate significant body fat loss, and significant muscular strength/endurance gains (D’Acquisto et al., 2001; Nagle et al., 2003; Sanders, 2006; Pöyhönen et al., 2002; Takeshima et al., 2002). Documented benefits of exercising in deep water for older adults are less clear. However, the practical benefits include zero impact, for a low-joint-stress, high-intensity cardio workout with some crossover muscular conditioning.